The study of child development is divided into three broad areas:
(a) physical; is a predictable flow which are body changes, or acquisition of certain skills.
(b) Intellectual development; the process at which a child acquires knowledge which include thought, language, reasoning etc
(c) social-emotional; this include how a child relates to others and understanding his or her feelings and how the feelings is being expressed. Which are Trust, friendship , sense of humor, fear, confidence etc.
Stages of child psychology are:
Milestones: act as checkpoints in a child’s development to be able to understand what an average child is capable of at a certain age.It is used to measure important areas of a child’s growth by a psychologist. Understanding the milestones for different ages helps the psychologist understand normal child development and also aids in identifying potential problems with delayed development. For example, a child of 12 months old is expected to already be able to walk or able to support himself/herself by holding onto something. If a child reaches 18 months of age but still cannot walk, it might indicate a problem that needs further investigation.
Behavior: It is the need to be independent and to develop ones own identity. It is a normal behavioral process for every growing child which sometimes create conflict between parents and their kids. All children can be naughty, defiant and impulsive from time to time. However, some children have extremely difficult and challenging behaviors that are outside the norm for their age. In fact, behavioral disorders are the most common reason that parents seek the help of child psychologists.
Emotions. Emotional development involves learning what feelings and emotions are, understanding how and why they happen, to know your and other people’s feelings, and to develop ways to manage those feelings effectively. This complex process begins in infancy into adulthood. The first emotions babies exhibit are joy, fear, anger and sadness. But as a child starts developing a sense of self, more complex emotions begins to find expression like shyness, surprise, elation, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride and empathy. Learning to regulate emotions is more difﬁcult for some children than for others. This may be due to their particular emotional temperament – some children simply feel emotions more intensely and easily, are more emotionally reactive and ﬁnd it harder to calm down. Children with high emotions also tend to get anxious more quickly and easily than other children. Things that brings about emotional reaction changes as well as the strategy used in control them.
Socialization. Is similar to emotional development. It involves getting the values, knowledge and skill that children needs to relate with other children effectively and to positively contribute to their family, school and community. Children who fail to properly socialize have difficulty creating and maintaining satisfying relationships with others .
In conclusion, One of the first and most important relationships children experience is the relationship with their parents and the quality of this relationship has a significant effect on later social development. (read building a healthy relationship with your child)
What can lead to a child’s inability to develop age-appropriate social skills starts from the amount of love and affection the child receives to the socio-economic status of the family.
Children who fail to properly socialize have difficulty creating and maintaining satisfying relationships with others –which most times give them issues in their adulthood. As parents we should help our children develop/learn how to self express themselves in ways that is socially appropriate and engaging them in socially constructive actions (such as helping, caring and sharing with others) and developing a healthy sense of self worth. Have a beautiful weekend while you take out time with your children.